Ethnicity harmonised standard

This harmonised standard is under development. We plan to review and update the current harmonised standard by looking at evidence such as the recommended ethnic group questions for Census 2021 England and Wales, Census 2021 for Northern Ireland, and Census 2022 for Scotland. Please see the “future developments” section of this page for more information. If you would like to be involved with this work, please contact us: gsshelp@statistics.gov.uk.  

Policy details

Metadata item Details
Publication date:17 April 2019
Author:Rhys Fletcher
Approver:Sofi Nickson
Who this is for:Users and producers of statistics
Type:Harmonisation standards and guidance
Contact:

gsshelp@statistics.gov.uk

What is harmonisation?

Harmonisation is the process of making statistics and data more comparable, consistent and coherent. Harmonised standards set out how to collect and report statistics to ensure comparability across different data collections in the Government Statistical Service (GSS). Harmonisation produces more useful statistics that give users a greater level of understanding.

What do we mean by ethnicity?

The Office for National Statistics notes that there is no consensus on what constitutes an ethnic group, and membership is something that is self-defined and subjectively meaningful to the person concerned. Since ethnicity is a multifaceted and changing phenomenon, various possible ways of measuring ethnic groups are available and have been used over time. These include common ancestry and elements of culture, identity, religion, language and physical appearance. What seems to be generally accepted, however, is that ethnicity includes all these aspects, and others, in combination.

Questions and response options (inputs)

The harmonised questions on this topic are designed to collect basic information on ethnicity, for use in most surveys. They are not designed to replace questions used in specialist surveys where more detailed analysis is required. Please also note that the format of the question varies slightly depending on whether data is being collected in England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. See the “guidance for devolved administrations” section of this page for more information.

Face-to-face interview or self-complete mode questions

Questions: England

Below is the recommended ethnic group question for use in England. This question is recommended when a show card is used in a face to face interview or for self-completion modes (both paper and electronic).

What is your ethnic group?

(Choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background)

White

  1. English / Welsh / Scottish / Northern Irish / British
  2. Irish
  3. Gypsy or Irish Traveller
  4. Any other White background, please describe

Mixed / Multiple ethnic groups

  1. White and Black Caribbean
  2. White and Black African
  3. White and Asian
  4. Any other Mixed / Multiple ethnic background, please describe

 Asian / Asian British

  1. Indian
  2. Pakistani
  3. Bangladeshi
  4. Chinese
  5. Any other Asian background, please describe

 Black / African / Caribbean / Black British

  1. African
  2. Caribbean
  3. Any other Black / African / Caribbean background, please describe

 Other ethnic group

  1. Arab
  2. Any other ethnic group, please describe

Questions: Northern Ireland

Below is the recommended ethnic group question for use in Northern Ireland. This question is recommended when a show card is used in a face to face interview or self-completion survey (both paper and electronic).

What is your ethnic group?

(Choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background)

  1. White
  2. Irish Traveller

 Mixed / Multiple ethnic groups

  1. White and Black Caribbean
  2. White and Black African
  3. White and Asian
  4. Any other Mixed / Multiple ethnic background, please describe

 Asian / Asian British

  1. Indian
  2. Pakistani
  3. Bangladeshi
  4. Chinese
  5. Any other Asian background, please describe

 Black / African / Caribbean / Black British

  1. African
  2. Caribbean
  3. Any other Black / African / Caribbean background, please describe

 Other ethnic group

  1. Arab
  2. Any other ethnic group, please describe

Questions: Scotland

Below is the recommended ethnic group question for use in Scotland. This question is recommended when a show card is used in a face to face interview or self-completion survey (both paper and electronic). This question has been developed to enable direct comparison with the Scottish Census and other sources in Scotland.

It is important to note when producing outputs for surveys with Great Britain (GB) or United Kingdom (UK) coverage, some of the response categories can only be harmonised at the main level category. Footnotes should also be included to explain the differences in the data collection process (as explained in the Standards outputs).

What is your ethnic group?

(Choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background)

White

  1. Scottish
  2. Other British
  3. Irish
  4. Gypsy/Traveller
  5. Polish
  6. Any other White ethnic group, please describe

 Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups

  1. Any Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups, please describe

 Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British

  1. Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British
  2. Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British
  3. Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British
  4. Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British
  5. Any other Asian, please describe

 African

  1. African, African Scottish or African British
  2. Any other African, please describe

Caribbean or Black

  1. Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British
  2. Black, Black Scottish or Black British
  3. Any other Caribbean or Black, please describe

 Other ethnic group

  1. Arab, Arab Scottish or Arab British
  2. Any other ethnic group, please describe

When it is not feasible to ask the recommended country specific Scotland ethnic group question, the recommended question for England and Wales should be used (putting the Scottish option first in the response categories).

Questions: Wales

Below is the recommended ethnic group question for use in Wales. This question is recommended when a show card is used in a face to face interview or self-completion survey (both paper and electronic).

What is your ethnic group?

(Choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background)

White

  1. Welsh / English / Scottish / Northern Irish / British
  2. Irish
  3. Gypsy or Irish Traveller
  4. Any other White background, please describe

 Mixed / Multiple ethnic groups

  1. White and Black Caribbean
  2. White and Black African
  3. White and Asian
  4. Any other Mixed / Multiple ethnic background, please describe

 Asian / Asian British

  1. Indian
  2. Pakistani
  3. Bangladeshi
  4. Chinese
  5. Any other Asian background, please describe

 Black / African / Caribbean / Black British

  1. African
  2. Caribbean
  3. Any other Black / African / Caribbean background, please describe

 Other ethnic group

  1. Arab
  2. Any other ethnic group, please describe

Telephone interview questions

Where use of a show card is not possible (such as in telephone surveys), the question should be asked in stages due to the length of the question. The recommended stages are presented below (Part 1 and Part 2).

The interviewer should use the word ‘or’ after each response option in parts 1 and 2 of the two-stage question. A pause in speech should be used to indicate a forward slash (/). For Scotland ‘or’ is used instead of a forward slash.

Part 1

Interviewer to read:

What is your ethnic group? I will read out the options, choose one option that best describes your ethnic group or background.

In England and Wales

Interviewer to read options:                       

  1. White, or
  2. Mixed/ Multiple ethnic groups, or
  3. Asian/ Asian British, or
  4. Black/ African/ Caribbean/ Black British, or
  5. Chinese, or
  6. Arab, or
  7. Other ethnic group
In Scotland

Interviewer to read options:

  1. White or
  2. Mixed or Multiple Ethnic group, or
  3. Asian or Asian Scottish or Asian British, or
  4. African or
  5. Caribbean or Black or
  6. Arab or
  7. Other ethnic group
In Northern Ireland

Interviewer to read options:                       

  1. White, or
  2. Irish Traveller, or
  3. Mixed/ Multiple ethnic groups, or
  4. Asian/ Asian British, or
  5. Black/ African/ Caribbean/ Black British, or
  6. Chinese, or
  7. Arab, or
  8. Other ethnic group

Part 2

Interviewer to read:

And which one of these best describes your ethnic group or background?

Applies if response to part 1=”White”
In England

Interviewer to read options:

  1. English / Welsh / Scottish / Northern Irish / British, or
  2. Irish, or
  3. Gypsy or Irish Traveller, or
  4. Any other White background?
In Wales

Interviewer to read options:

  1. Welsh / English / Scottish / Northern Irish / British, or
  2. Irish, or
  3. Gypsy or Irish Traveller, or
  4. Any other White background?
In Scotland

Interviewer to read options:

  1. Scottish or
  2. Other British or
  3. Irish or
  4. Gypsy traveller or
  5. Polish or
  6. Any other white ethnic group?
Applies if response to part 1=”Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups”
In England, Northern Ireland and Wales

Interviewer to read options:

  1. White and Black Caribbean, or
  2. White and Black African, or
  3. White and Asian, or
  4. Any other mixed / multiple ethnic background?
Applies if response to part 1=”Asian/Asian British”
In England, Northern Ireland and Wales

Interviewer to read options:

  1. Indian, or
  2. Pakistani, or
  3. Bangladeshi, or
  4. Any other Asian background?
In Scotland

Interviewer to read options:

  1. Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British or
  2. Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British or
  3. Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British or
  4. Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British or
  5. Any other Asian group
Applies if response to part 1=”Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”
In England, Northern Ireland and Wales

Interviewer to read options:

  1. African, or
  2. Caribbean, or
  3. Any other Black / African / Caribbean background?
Applies if response to part 1=”African”
In Scotland

Interviewer to read options:

  1. African, African Scottish or African British or
  2. Any other African group?
Applies if response to part 1=”Caribbean or Black”
In Scotland

Interviewer to read options:

  1. Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British or
  2. Black, Black Scottish or Black British or
  3. Any other Caribbean or Black group?
Applies if response to part 1=”Other ethnic group” or response to part 2=”Any other…”

Interviewer to read:

Please can you describe your ethnic group or background?

Record respondent’s answer

Using this standard

Collecting data on cultural identity is complex because of the subjective and multifaceted nature of the concept. It is self-defined and subjectively meaningful to an individual and tends to evolve in the context of social and political attitudes or developments. To allow respondents to properly express their cultural identity, it is recommended that three questions are asked together: national identity, ethnic group and religion. This provides a more comprehensive understanding of an individual’s cultural identity which will in turn allow for a more accurate picture of a population.

We recommend that the topics should be ordered:

  • National identity
  • Ethnic group
  • Religion

Question placement

It is recommended that harmonised questions on ethnic group are asked in conjunction with harmonised questions on national identity to provide a fuller understanding of an individual’s cultural identity.  Testing also shows that asking the national identity question immediately before the ethnic group question increases the public acceptability of the ethnic group question as it allows respondents to express their identity as British, English, Welsh , Scottish, Northern Irish irrespective of their ethnic group.

Guidance for devolved administrations

Different countries within the United Kingdom (UK) have specific requirements from their ethnicity data. As such, the questions and classifications differ based on which country. To facilitate comparison at a UK level, the harmonised standards allow a Great Britain and UK level output.

For Northern Ireland specific requirements to comply with the Good Friday/Belfast Agreement which recognises “the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose”, and legislation under the Race Relations (NI) Order 1997 which outlaws discrimination on grounds of colour, race, nationality or ethnic or national origin. The Irish Traveller community is specifically identified in the Order as a racial group.

For Scotland, specific requirements came out of a review of the way Scottish surveys classified ethnicity following recommendations made by the Race Equality Advisory Forum in 2001 and community concerns about the classification used in Scotland’s 2001 Census. The review was conducted by Scottish Government and National Records Scotland and identified the benefits for developing a separate national identity and new ethnicity classification for use on the Scottish Census and relevant Scottish Official Statistics. Both questions used together would allow people to self-express their “Scottish-ness”, “British-ness” or any other national identity before expressing their ethnic origin. The new ethnicity classification was published in July 2008 and details of the classification (including research, consultation and question testing) can be found by reading Scotland’s New Ethnicity Classification for Scottish Official Statistics and Recommended for Scotland’s 2011 Census report.

The classification was discussed by Members of the Scottish Parliament during considerations of the 2011 Census in Scotland and was subsequently amended for use in the Census. Details of the committee discussions can be seen in the Official Reports of the Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee (9th and 12th meetings).

Types of data collection this standard is suitable for

This standard can be used in interviewer and self-complete modes, including telephone interviewing, face to face interviewing, paper self-completion, and online self-completion.

It is recommended that the ethnic group question is asked in a way that allows the respondent to see all possible response options or subcategories before making their decision. Therefore, in face-to-face interviewer-led surveys, a single show card should be used which presents all response options. Similarly, a self-completion survey (e.g. paper-based) should use a single question. The show card presentation and paper-based surveys should include the instruction “please describe” in brackets and non-bold font following the “any other [ethnic group] background” response options.

If a showcard is not possible, it is recommended to use the question developed for telephone interviewing.

Who should respond to the ethnicity questions?

Ethnic group, religion and national identity are self-identification measures reflecting how people define themselves. Therefore, a response to a question should be answered by the respondent directly, particularly if the respondent is an adult. It is sometimes possible to ask another member of the household to reply on behalf of a respondent, however, this should be used only as a last resort. Where this does occur, notes should be recorded to reflect this. It is also important that interviewers do not attempt to use their own judgements.

The questions have been designed for use with adult respondents aged 16 or over. If the target population is below this age, guidance may be needed from the child’s parent, guardian or carer, particularly if the child is below the age of 12 as they may not understand what the question is asking. It is not recommended that categories are removed from the response options available to children as their choice should not be limited because of their age (or other factors).

Guidance for data collection

The instruction “please describe” should follow the “other” response options. This should be in non-bold font. These instructions should also be included on paper-based surveys.

It is recommended that the harmonised country specific questions should be used where possible, rather than a blanket approach.  It is recognised that in rare cases not all Great Britain or United Kingdom wide surveys will have the resources required to ask different questions in different countries.  In these rare situations the “England and Wales” question can be used in Scotland.

Presenting and reporting the data (outputs)

Presentation: England and Wales

Ethnic group Data
White
English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/BritishX
IrishX
Gypsy, Traveller or Irish Traveller X
Any other White backgroundX
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
White and Black CaribbeanX
White and Black AfricanX
White and AsianX
Any other Mixed/Multiple ethnic backgroundX
Asian/Asian British
IndianX
PakistaniX
BangladeshiX
ChineseX
Any other Asian backgroundX
Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
AfricanX
CaribbeanX
Any other Black/African/Caribbean backgroundX
Other ethnic group
ArabX
Any other ethnic groupX

Presentation: Northern Ireland

Ethnic groupData
WhiteX
Irish TravellerX
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
White and Black CaribbeanX
White and Black AfricanX
White and AsianX
Any other Mixed/Multiple ethnic backgroundX
Asian/Asian British
IndianX
PakistaniX
BangladeshiX
ChineseX
Any other Asian backgroundX
Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
AfricanX
CaribbeanX
Any other Black/African/Caribbean backgroundX
Other ethnic group
ArabX
Any other ethnic groupX

Presentation: Scotland

Ethnic group Data
White
ScottishX
Other BritishX
IrishX
Gypsy/TravellerX
PolishX
Any other white ethnic groupX
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
Any mixed or multiple ethnic groupsX
Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British
Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani BritishX
Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian BritishX
Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi BritishX
Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese BritishX
Any other AsianX
African
African, African Scottish or African BritishX
Any other AfricanX
Caribbean or Black
Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean BritishX
Black, Black Scottish or Black BritishX
Any other Caribbean or BlackX
Other ethnic group
Arab, Arab Scottish or Arab BritishX
Any other ethnic groupX

Presentation: Great Britain

If the harmonised country specific ethnic group questions for England, Wales and Scotland are used to produce a Great Britain (GB) level output then the presentation of data should follow order of responses in the box below. It is important to note that due to some of the differences in the format and wording of Scotland’s harmonised country specific ethnic group question some responses are not directly comparable. Response categories should be aggregated and presented at the main level category with footnotes to explain the differences in the data collection process.

Ethnic group Data
White
English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/BritishX
IrishX
Gypsy, Traveller or Irish Traveller X
Any other White backgroundX
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groupsX
Asian/Asian British
IndianX
PakistaniX
BangladeshiX
ChineseX
Any other Asian backgroundX
Black/African/Caribbean/Black BritishX
Other ethnic group
ArabX
Any other ethnic groupX

Presentation: United Kingdom

If the harmonised country specific ethnic group questions for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are used to produce a UK output then the presentation of data should follow the box below. It is important to note that due to some of the differences in the format and wording of the Scotland harmonised country specific ethnic group question some responses are not directly comparable. Response categories should be aggregated and presented at the main level category with footnotes to explain the differences in the data collection process.

Ethnic group Data
WhiteX
Irish TravellerX
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groupsX
Asian/Asian BritishX
IndianX
PakistaniX
BangladeshiX
ChineseX
Any other Asian backgroundX
Black/African/Caribbean/Black BritishX
Other ethnic groupX
ArabX
Any other ethnic groupX

Comparability

Outputs that use this standard are comparable with other surveys that also use this standard. However, we would not recommend comparing ethnicity from outputs using this standard with other outputs that use an alternative measure.

Examples of when this standard has been used

Use in the Census

The current harmonised standard for ethnic group is based on the 2011 Census questions from across the UK. Surveys therefore using the same question as any of the 2011 Censuses can therefore be deemed broadly comparable with the harmonised standard for ethnic group.

Development of this standard

This standard was developed through a cross-government harmonisation project,  involving consultation and workshops with stakeholders between 2008 and 2010 that included:

  • Office for National Statistics
  • Scottish Government and National Records of Scotland
  • Welsh Government
  • Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister/Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
  • Equality and Human Rights Commission
  • Data Standards Working Group
  • other government departments
  • academics

The ethnicity harmonised standard is based on the ethnic group question used for Census 2011 in England and Wales. This means the question design has been informed by the extensive qualitative and quantitative research completed for this census. The response options in the harmonised standard have also been developed using research from each of the four United Kingdom (UK) countries.

For example, development of the ethnic group question for Census 2011 was interlinked with the development of a national identity question. In the 2001 Census there were no specific tick-boxes in the ethnic group question to record British national identities for those who are not white. In England and Wales 70,000 people wrote Black British under “Other Black” to express their Britishness. The 2007 consultation with users of census data identified that ethnic minority populations wanted to express their affiliation with England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and Britain, particularly those who were born in the UK. Evidence also suggests that respondents are happier to express their ethnic group if they can also express their national identity.

Due to the close association of national identity and ethnicity questions, the introduction and development of the national identity question has formed part of the decision-making process on the ethnic group question. In this way, individuals can identify as British, in addition to any ethnicity. In accordance with this, we recommend using a national identity harmonised standard alongside the ethnicity standard.

Response option ordering

With regards to the order of response options, the ethnic group question in Census 2011 was not categorised in alphabetical order for two main reasons.

Firstly, census is designed to be as easy to complete as possible. Testing across the UK has shown that respondents tend to only read down the classification as far as the first tick-box they find suitable. As more than 90 per cent of respondents will tick a box under the “White” category, placing it first will minimise respondent burden. Within categories, tick-boxes are also ordered in descending population size.

Secondly, the “Mixed” heading has been positioned after the “White” heading since 2001 because question testing showed that these respondents were likely to miss this category if it was placed at the bottom of the classification (since they could respond using one or more of the tick-boxes higher up in the classification). For example, a respondent of mixed “White” and “Asian or Asian British” background might tick both a “White” and “Asian” tick-box if the “Mixed” heading was not one of the first categories. The remaining categories (“Asian /Asian British” and “Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”) were placed in alphabetical order. During cognitive testing the majority of respondents found the order of the categories in the ethnic group question acceptable.

Further information on questions development can be found in the final recommended question report for Census 2011.

Future developments

We plan to review and update the current harmonised standard by looking at evidence such as the recommended ethnic group questions for Census 2021 England and Wales, Census 2021 for Northern Ireland, and Census 2022 for Scotland. The Census Regulations have now been made and laid and include many of the operational details of the census, as well as exact copies of the paper questionnaires and descriptions of the online questionnaires.

The questions designed specifically for Censuses 2021 and 2022 have not yet been widely used in surveys and administrative data collection. We therefore intend to monitor usage, performance and feedback in the coming months so that we can better understand how they might perform in surveys and administrative data. If you would like to be involved in these developments, please contact us: gsshelp@statistics.gov.uk.

The following summary outlines the current position based on the regulations in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

England and Wales

As set out in the regulations for England and for Wales, the questions will include:

  • a tick-box for “Roma” in the “White Category”
  • an option for those selecting “African” within the “Black, Black British, Caribbean or African” category to write in a more specific African ethnic background
  • changes in the way “African” and “Caribbean” are ordered within the “Black, Black British, Caribbean or African” category
  • the examples “Black Welsh” and “Asian Welsh” have been added to the high level ethnic group category descriptions on the Welsh questionnaire only.

Testing responding to this question online has shown that following a two staged approach, asking first about higher-level group, then about detailed ethnicity, works best. Further testing to maximise the ease of responding to this question online continues. Online “search-as-you-type” functionality will help to ensure that people can tell us how they wish to identify themselves.

For both online and paper versions, the readability of the question will be improved by removing slashes between terms.

Scotland

The Scottish questions approved for 2022 include:

  • a tick-box for “Roma” in the “White” category
  • changes in the way “Polish” and “Gypsy/Traveler” are ordered in the “White” category
  • a tick box for “Showman/Showwoman” in the “White” category
  • a prompt to write in “Jewish, Sikh” in the “Other ethnic group” category
  • a design change to the “African” category to improve data quality
  • a design change to the “Caribbean or Black” category to improve data quality
  • changing the category heading “African” to “African, Scottish African or British African” to improve acceptability and parity
  • Scottish and British before the other parts of the ethnic group label.

Northern Ireland

As set out in the regulations for Northern Ireland, the questions will include:

  • a tick-box for “Roma”
  • a tick-box for “Filipino”
  • a design change removing Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean categories (these responses can still be written-in by respondents)

As with 2011 Census, a question on national identity will be asked before the ethnic group question. This improves public acceptability of the ethnic group question by allowing respondents to express where they feel they belong, such as the country or countries they think of as home, irrespective of ethnic group, citizenship or country of birth.

Further information

It is strongly encouraged to capture cultural identity using the full harmonised suite of cultural identity questions: ethnicity, national identity and religion. This captures a fuller picture of identity, for example by allowing respondents to express their identity as British, English, Welsh , Scottish, Northern Irish irrespective of their ethnic group.

It is recognised that not all surveys or administrative data sources will have the capacity or user need to ask these harmonised questions on ethnic group, religion and national identity in combination. However, if the full suite of harmonised questions is not asked together then other sources of information should be used to inform legal obligations under the Equality Act (2010), Public Sector Equality Duty (PSED) and analogous legislation such as Section 75 of the Northern Ireland Act (1998). These require public bodies to have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination, advance equality of opportunity and build  good relations between different people when carrying out their activities.

The Equality Act 2010 protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society. Under the Equality Act 2010 Race (including ethnic or national origins, colour or nationality) and Religion or belief (including lack of belief) are both protected characteristics. Therefore, it is recommended that the suite of harmonised questions on ethnic group, religion and national identity are asked together to inform obligations under the  PSED.

Language is another concept that is often associated with ethnicity, religion and national identity. You may wish to consider collecting information on language to gain further insight into a population, though currently a GSS wide harmonised standard is not offered due to a lack of user need. If you believe there is a wider need for a harmonised language standard then please contact us at GSShelp@statistics.gov.uk.

Inclusive Data Taskforce

In October 2020, the National Statistician established the Inclusive Data Taskforce to improve the UK’s inclusive data holdings in a broad range of areas, including the nine protected characteristics of the Equality Act. In September 2021, the Taskforce recommendations were published, some of which specifically refer to harmonised standards. The National Statistician’s response to these recommendations references the publication of a GSS Harmonisation Plan and the review, refinement and updating of harmonised standards. Further information on this work will be made available in due course.

Review frequency:

This page will be reviewed annually.

Updates

Date Changes
15 January 2021

Further background information on the standard has been provided as has an update on future plans for this area.

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