Gender identity harmonised principle for data collection (interim)
This principle has been published in an interim format because we want to understand how well it meets the needs of government departments and other researchers.
By sharing this interim principle and monitoring its usage and feedback, we hope to understand more about how it performs in action, in surveys and administrative data. We are keen to hear your feedback and answer any of your questions. Email: email@example.com.
|Publication date:||16 July 2020|
|Author:||GSS Harmonisation Team|
|Who this is for:||Users and producers of statistics|
|Type:||Harmonisation guidance and principles|
What is harmonisation?
Harmonisation is the process of making statistics and data more comparable, consistent and coherent. This harmonised principle sets out how to collect and report statistics to ensure comparability across different data collections in the Government Statistical Service (GSS). This produces more useful statistics that give users a greater level of understanding.
Who is this principle for?
This principle is for researchers who are considering including a question about gender identity on their surveys or within their administrative data collection.
This new harmonised principle will be useful to those in government departments and the wider public sector who are considering how best to collect data on gender identity. We also anticipate that it will be helpful to those working in academia or the private and third sectors who would like to collect gender identity information as part of their work.
Why collect gender identity information?
Data are needed for policy development, service planning and provision.
There is also a growing need for respondents to be able to record an identity, other than male or female, on surveys or forms.
At the moment, there is little official data on the topic of gender identity. The research done by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), Exploring existing data on gender identity and sexual orientation, found that few surveys currently collect gender identity data, specifically information about those whose gender identity is different from their sex registered at birth. For those that do, it is a relatively new topic, so available statistics or data are limited. To date there has been no agreed best practice for collecting gender identity data. Collecting gender identity data in a consistent manner will assist in building the evidence base. This would help to bring an awareness of the size of the population whose gender identity is different from their sex registered at birth, their needs and access of specific services, and inequalities they may be facing.
Questions and response options (input)
To meet stakeholder needs, the proposed gender identity harmonised principle for data collection (interim) has been designed to collect two pieces of information:
- Whether a person’s gender identity is the same or different from their sex registered at birth – captured via the ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ response options.
- How people wish to self-describe their gender identity – captured via the free-text box.
This principle is about gender identity. It does not collect information on sex. Further information on the collection of data relating to sex can be found on the sex and gender harmonisation guidance webpage.
English language self-complete question
Question: Is the gender you identify with the same as your sex registered at birth? Response options:
- No, enter gender identity
- Prefer not to say
Welsh language self-complete question
Question: A yw’r rhywedd rydych chi’n uniaethu ag ef yr un peth â’ch rhyw a gofrestrwyd pan gawsoch chi eich geni?
- Nac ydy, nodwch eich hunaniaeth o ran rhywedd
- Mae’n well gen i beidio â dweud
Using this principle
Age of the respondent
This question has been developed for respondents aged 16 and over.
The inclusion of the free-text option is important as it increases acceptability of the question for members of the trans community, leading to them being more willing to answer the question. Further tick-box options have not been included because there are a variety of identities with which people may identify and the language related to this topic is developing.
However, detailed information should only be collected if there is a need for it. Therefore, we encourage consideration of how free-text information collected by the free-text option would be used before implementing the question.
If you do choose to implement the gender identity harmonised principle without the free-text option, please email firstname.lastname@example.org and share your experiences.
The “Prefer not to say” response option and refusals
Most surveys and administrative collections of data are voluntary, and it is good practice to advise individuals at the start of the data collection that they do not need to answer anything they do not want to answer. This means respondents should be able to skip this question if they do not wish to answer it.
Due to this question being sensitive for some respondents and the need to maintain privacy, we recommend that a way of not having to answer the question is explicitly provided; this is the ‘Prefer not to say’ option on the principle. This is in addition to the implicit option of refusing to answer the question. This is consistent with good practice in data collection for sensitive topics.
We anticipate that a gender identity question may be asked with a question on sex as some data collectors may want to collect data on the protected characteristic of sex, female or male, in addition to data on gender identity.
The gender identity question and a sex question can be placed next to each other or apart. If the respondent cannot see that a gender identity question will follow it is recommended that a guidance note be added to the sex question to say that a gender identity question will follow.
Suitable data collection methods for this principle
The question has been developed primarily for self-completion on paper and online.
Guidance for data collection
How and where people will answer the questions
Privacy is an important issue in answering a question about gender identity, which is considered a personal matter.
If asking the question in a face-to-face context, aim to ensure respondents’ answers cannot be seen by others. For example, if the question is to be asked as part of a interviewer-led household survey, respondents could be offered the chance to complete the gender identity question themselves, thus enabling privacy from the household and interviewer.
Proxy response – completing the question on behalf of someone else
As is good data collection practice, a response from the individual themselves should be obtained wherever possible and we would recommend this for the collection of gender identity information.
Due to the sensitive and private nature of the topic, careful consideration should be given before enabling proxy response. We advise putting in place appropriate ways to maintain privacy and protect respondent confidentiality.
The ONS found that gender identity information can be collected by proxy if required but this may affect the quality of data collected.
However, the testing of proxy response was in relation to Census 2021 for England and Wales. In this case, individuals will be able to respond independently from the household questionnaire, with the individual response overriding household response. The ONS has not tested acceptability of proxy response in the context of general surveys and administrative data collections, which may differ.
The Northern Ireland Research and Statistics Agency (NISRA) currently ask a gender identity question in some of their household surveys, but it should be noted that proxy responses to the question are not permitted.
Presenting and reporting the data (outputs)
Recommended data presentation
|Gender identity the same as sex registered at birth||XXX|
|Gender identity different from sex registered at birth||XXX|
|Prefer not to say||XXX|
|Spontaneous only: refusal or did not answer||XXX|
The following displays what responses we would expect to be categorised into the above data presentation template:
Gender identity the same as sex registered at birth – refers to those who selected ‘Yes’ and includes male when registered male at birth and female when registered female at birth.
Gender identity different from sex registered at birth – refers to those who selected ‘No’ and whose gender identity is not the same as the sex they were registered at birth. This is inclusive of a range of gender identities, including binary male or female genders when not the same as registered at birth, non-binary genders such as those on a continuum between male and female, and non-gendered identities (neither male nor female).
Prefer not to say – refers to those who responded with ‘Prefer not to say’.
Spontaneous only: refusal or did not answer – refers to those who have either refused to answer or more generally, where a response has not been given. This should not be presented as an option to the respondent, but it can be recorded. This is useful to infer the acceptability and usability of the question and will be beneficial to evaluating the interim principle.
We aim to harmonise data collection and outputs across the United Kingdom (UK) where this is appropriate, however needs and circumstances sometimes differ between the countries.
We encourage researchers to implement the harmonised principle for collecting gender identity data. If researchers implement this question in a UK-wide context they should bear in mind that data collected may not be fully comparable with country-specific official statistics.
Data collection across the UK
England and Wales
Census 2021 for England and Wales
The ONS is responsible for the census in England and Wales. Census 2021 in England and Wales will include a gender identity question. The Census (England) Regulations 2020 and Census (Wales) Regulations 2020 both came into force in June 2020. The development of the question has been informed by research and testing. It has been found to meet user needs identified for England and Wales. The question is available in both English and Welsh.
As this harmonised principle is based on the gender identity question for Census 2021 for England and Wales, data collected will be broadly comparable.
Crime Survey for England and Wales
The Crime Survey for England and Wales, conducted by Kantar on behalf of the ONS, has been trialling a gender identity question in a self-completion module on the questionnaire, as part of the face-to-face interviews. The question is based on that used in the 2019 Rehearsal for England and Wales for Census 2021, with the addition of ‘Prefer not to say’ and ‘Do not wish to answer’ response options.
Census 2022 for Scotland
The National Records of Scotland (NRS) are responsible for the census in Scotland. The Census (Scotland) Regulations 2020 came into force in June 2020. Scotland’s Census 2022 will include a question about trans status. Their testing showed this question was acceptable in Scotland and produced good quality data.
Information on this testing is available in the NRS Sex and Gender Identity Topic Report.
Census 2021 in Northern Ireland
The Northern Ireland Research and Statistics Agency (NISRA) are responsible for the census in Northern Ireland. NISRA do not plan to ask a question on gender identity in their Census 2021.
NISRA currently ask a gender identity question on some of their household surveys, which include:
- Health Survey Northern Ireland
- The Northern Ireland Safe Community Survey
- Continuous Household Survey
The GSS Harmonisation Team will work closely with ONS, the Welsh Government, NRS and NISRA as part of the ongoing development process for the harmonised principle, and also to provide comparable Census 2021 outputs where possible
Development of this interim principle
As a priority, we have developed a question to collect data on those whose gender identity is different from their sex registered at birth. This harmonised principle draws on extensive research and testing conducted primarily for Census 2021 in England and Wales. This is the first gender identity data collection principle to be shared and is primarily for use in online and paper self-completion contexts.
We are aware that further questions and guidance may be required for specific contexts. We have a wide programme of work underway, including to determine any further needs and identify whether and how they can be met (see ‘Next Steps’ for more information).
ONS work related to gender identity
Further information about the ONS work in relation to gender identity, including research and testing, and work to develop a question for Census 2021, can be found on the gender identity webpage and in the report Sex and gender identity question development for Census 2021.
Working groups to address specific requirements
We will work with other government departments and data collectors to identify any further needs for the collection of gender identity data, as well as data on the related concepts of gender and sex.
Where relevant we will establish working groups to address specific requirements.
Each group would consider and discuss issues specific to them and work towards solutions. For any groups that we establish, we anticipate that the first meetings will be held in early 2021.
Core decision-making and governance group
We are establishing a core group to provide governance, ratify principles and support decision making for gender identity data collection. The group would monitor progress, discuss and prioritise future work and ensure harmonisation. It would also provide a forum for sharing work and solutions.
We propose that membership would include topic experts, research and statistical experts, GSS harmonisation experts, equalities specialists and policy specialists.
We anticipate that this core group will meet every quarter with the first meeting in late 2020/early 2021.
The process for reviewing the interim status
We will monitor the usage, performance and feedback on the gender identity harmonised principle for data collection (interim) over the coming months and will review its use in mid-2021. Following the review, we hope to remove the ‘interim’ label and publish the final version on the GSS website. To do this, we will:
- seek feedback on use of the harmonised principle; whether and how the data this collects meets needs from colleagues across government, as well as our wider stakeholders
- consider how this question fits with developments in our wider work on gender identity data collection, as well as other ongoing projects across the UK
- discuss the performance of the harmonised principle at the core decision-making and governance group, with an aim to remove the interim label and finalise the principle
We are keen to hear from anyone with views, relevant information, or questions about the principle. Please email us at: email@example.com.
Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Team at the Office for National Statistics (ONS)
See the gender identity webpage for further information about the ONS work on this topic.
Government Statistical Service (GSS) Harmonisation Team
See the GSS harmonisation webpage for further information on harmonisation
This principle is interim. We will monitor its use and provide updated guidance in due course.