Education

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Overview

This dashboard is not intended to include all education data, but instead provide an overview of data available on education as a public service. If you have a question on education services and are unsure what data would be best to use, then please contact us and we can assist: publicservicesanalysis@ons.gov.uk

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For guidance on how to best view the dashboard, please contact publicservicesanalysis@ons.gov.uk.

Caution should be taken when comparing indicators from the four aspects of efficiency (spending, inputs, outputs and outcomes), as they may not be comparable due to differences in the definitions used or coverage of services. For example, the spend data includes money spent on consumables, such as exercise books and printing, but we have only included data on teachers and staff in the inputs tab, as most of the expenditure is on wages of teachers and staff.

The relationship between different aspects of efficiency will be affected by a range of external factors. This dashboard includes data on spending and inputs on publicly funded education. However, the outcome measure of exam results will be impacted by parental involvement and private tutoring. Finally, changes to spending and inputs often take time to have an impact, so there may be a delay before changes in spending and inputs feed through to outputs and outcomes.

The dashboards are being released as an experimental ‘Beta’ product to gain feedback that we will use to inform the next stage of development. We are continuously striving to improve the quality of these dashboards and would welcome feedback on how they are being used and what improvements we should consider for future iterations.

If you have any queries or would like to provide feedback, please contact:
publicservicesanalysis@ons.gov.uk

Data at school level

The Department of Education provide tools that allow comparison and benchmarking of data at school and academy level:

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Primary School Spend

Total Primary School Spend By Year

Between
2012/13 and 2015/16, total outturn (spend) by primary schools in England increased by approximately £1.1 billion, with a decline of £0.9 billion between 2015/16 and 2017/18.

School budgets have been ring-fenced in absolute terms but have not increased in line with increasing number of pupils.

Local Authority-Maintained Primary School Expenditure

Per pupil expenditure of local authority-maintained primary schools in England has remained relatively constant between 2016/17 and 2017/18, with a median spend of £5.1 thousand per pupil in 2017/18. This is less than the median spend per pupil in local authority-maintained secondary schools at £6.1 thousand.

Of this per pupil spend, total teaching staff was the highest staff-based expenditure at £2,287, equating to 60% of staff costs.

Primary Academy Expenditure

The median primary academy spend per pupil in England was £4.8 thousand in 2015/16. In comparison, secondary academy expenditure per pupil was £6.0 thousand.

Of this per pupil spend, approximately half (51%) was spent on teaching staff, with notable expenditures on education support staff (18%) and back office staff (12%).

Total Primary School Spend By Year
Source: HM Treasury, Table 10.1
Publication Date: 18 July 2019
Release frequency: Annual

The Department for Education is currently recording all central government academy expenditure as ‘Secondary Education’. These include schools in primary and other functional categories.

Local Authority-Maintained Primary School Expenditure
Source: Department for Education, Table 4
Publication Date: 6 December 2018
Release frequency: Annual

Per pupil figures are based on pupils and income and expenditure in schools that were open for the full financial year. As pupil referral units (PRUs) have a large number of subsidiary pupils the per pupil figures for PRUs will be skewed.

The “Total teaching staff” data includes the costs for permanent and supply staff. Supply teacher insurance and agency supply teacher costs are included in “Other employee costs” and “Running expenses” respectively.

Primary Academy Expenditure
Source: Department for Education, Table – Medians
Publication Date: 27 July 2017
Release Frequency: Annual

Medians are calculated based on Single Academy Trusts’ data only, for categories with more than 10 academies.

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Primary School Inputs

Primary Teacher Average Salary by Year

The pay for full-time equivalent primary school teachers in England has been steadily rising. This aligns with the current trend in the whole economy, where average salary has increased for the same period (Employee earnings in the UK: 2018, ONS)

Number of Primary Teachers (Full-Time Equivalent) by Year

In 2016, at the end of the period of increase, the number of full-time equivalent nursery and primary school teachers in England was 26,000 higher than 2010. This is an increase of 13%. After a decrease in 2017, the number of full-time equivalent nursery and primary school increased slightly in 2018.

The population of primary school-aged children has been growing, leading to an increase in the demand for teachers. The number of pupils in state-funded schools of both primary and nursery age has risen by 17% between 2010 and 2019 (see primary outputs).

Primary Teacher Average Salary by Year
For more information on Primary Teacher Average Salary by Year, see the following publication: School and college performance measures, England 2017-2018;
Source: Department for Education

For more information on the latest school workforce data, see the following publications: School workforce in England
Source: Department for Education

Number of Primary Teachers (Full-Time Equivalent) by Year
School workforce in England
Source: Department for Education, Table 1
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Single reference for all school workforce statistics based on staff working in publicly funded schools in England.

Before 2010, the number of teachers was taken as a snapshot in January. From 2010 onwards, the number of teachers was recorded in November.

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Primary School Outputs

Primary Pupil Number by Year

The population of children at primary school age has been rising since 2009. National Pupil Projections: July 2018 (2019 update)

With this growth there has been an increase of 17% in the number of primary school pupils in England between 2009 and 2019.

Primary School Numbers by Year

There has been a decline in the number of primary schools in England since 2003, with a net loss of 1,092 schools by 2019. This equates to a decrease of 6% in the total number of primary schools since 2003.

Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio and Pupil-to-Adult Ratio By Year

The pupil-to-teacher ratio for primary schools in England has been falling; there has been a downward trend from 2005-2010. Since then, the pupil-to-teacher ratio has begun to increase. This growth can be attributed to pupil numbers increasing at a faster rate than teacher numbers (see primary inputs).

Similarly, the number of pupils to adults has also fallen since 2005, reaching its lowest point in 2015 and 2016. This signifies an increasing number of adults to pupils within primary schools.

Primary Pupil Number and Primary School Numbers by Year
Source: Department for Education, Table 1a
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Data includes middle/all through schools.

Data includes all primary academies, including free schools.

Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio and Pupil-to-Adult Ratio
Source: School Workforce in England, Table 17a; Department for Education
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

This release provides data from the annual school census data return, which is mandatory for schools to complete.

It provides a snapshot of the number of pupils in school in the January of that year—i.e. 2013 refers to the 2012/13 academic year with the census taken in January.

The data covers all schools in England, including academies from 2011 onwards.

Data was not collected in 2010 for pupil-to-adult ratio.

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Primary School Outcomes

Ofsted Outcomes

In 2019, according to the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) outcomes of school inspections for state-funded schools in England, 87% of primary schools are currently rated as ‘Good’ or ‘Outstanding’ on the overall effectiveness scale. Comparatively, these outcomes are achieved by 75% of secondary schools.

Key Stage 2 Results

Results from the last 3 years have shown an increase in the percentages of those achieving expected and high standards in England. However, comparisons for 2018 need to be treated with caution as changes have been made to the assessment framework.

There is a clear gender gap in achievement; more girls than boys have reached expected and higher standards over the last 3 years. From 2016 to 2018, the gap between gender performance has been consistent around 7-8 percentage points for students reaching at least the expected standard. In comparison, the gap between gender performance for students reaching high standards increased by 3 percentage points.

Breaking down achievement levels into subject area indicates that the gender gap is largest for reading and writing. Attainment in mathematics between the two genders, on the other hand, shows a much smaller divide.

Ofsted Outcomes
Source: Ofsted, Table T3
Publication Date: 13 June 2019
Release Frequency: Triannual

Results from most recent inspections of 16,675 primary schools in England.

Key Stage 2 Results
Source: Department for Education, Table N1a
Publication Date: 13 December 2018
Release Frequency: Biannual

Comparisons between 2018 and previous years need to be treated with caution due to changes in the writing teacher assessment frameworks.

Figures include those independent schools who chose to take part in key stage 2 assessments.

Includes pupils who have reached the end of Key Stage 2 in all of reading, writing and mathematics, and are based on the Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs).

Includes pupils from independent schools that have chosen to take part in KS2 assessments.

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Secondary School Spend

Total Secondary School Spend By Year

In England, between 2014/15 and 2015/16, there was a drop in secondary school spending of £0.4 billion. However, in general, secondary school expenditure has increased by £4 billion (13%) between 2012/13 and 2017/18.

School budgets have been ring-fenced in absolute terms but have not increased in line with increasing number of pupils.

Local Authority-Maintained Secondary School Expenditure

Per pupil expenditure of local authority-maintained secondary schools in England has remained at a similar level between 2016/17 and 2017/18, but, at a median spend of £6.1 thousand per pupil, was slightly less in 2017/18. This is more than the median spend per pupil in local authority-maintained primary schools at £5.1 thousand.

Of this per pupil spend, total teaching staff was the highest staff-based expenditure at £3,315, equating to 72% of staff costs.

Secondary Academy Expenditure

The median secondary academy spend per pupil in England was £6.0 thousand in 2015/16. In comparison, primary academy expenditure per pupil was £4.8 thousand.

Of this per pupil spend, approximately 63% was spent on teaching staff, with notable expenditures on back office staff (12%).

Total Secondary School Spend By year
Source: HM Treasury (HMT) Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses (PESA), Table 10.1
Publication Date: 18 July 2019
Release frequency: Annual

The Department for Education is currently recording all central government academy expenditure as ‘Secondary Education’. These include schools in primary and other functional categories.

Local Authority-Maintained Secondary School Expenditure
Source: Department for Education, Table 4
Publication Date: 6 December 2018
Release frequency: Annual

Per pupil figures are based on pupils and income and expenditure in schools that were open for the full financial year. As pupil referral units (PRUs) have a large number of subsidiary pupils the per pupil figures for PRUs will be skewed.

The “Total teaching staff” data includes the costs for permanent and supply staff. Supply teacher insurance and agency supply teacher costs are included in “Other employee costs” and “Running expenses” respectively.

Secondary Academy Expenditure
Source: Department for Education, Table – Medians
Publication Date: 27 July 2017
Release Frequency: Annual

Medians are calculated based on Single Academy Trusts’ data only, for categories with more than 10 academies.

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Secondary School Inputs

Secondary Teacher Average Salary by Year

The average salary for secondary school teachers in England experienced an increase of £1,150 between 2014/15 and 2015/16, where average salaries totalled £38,246 and £39,396 respectively. By 2017/18, average salary reached £39,762, equating to a total increase of 4% since 2014/15.

Number of Secondary Teachers (Full-Time Equivalent) by Year

Since 2010, the number of full-time equivalent secondary school teachers in England has been gradually declining, with a minor increase of 1,126 teachers in 2012. From 2010, where the number of secondary school teachers reached a peak within the last decade, teacher numbers have declined by approximately 15 thousand (7%).

Recruitment targets for teachers has failed to be met for the past 5 years. There has also been an increase in the number of secondary school teachers leaving the profession. 85% of secondary school leaders felt that they did not receive sufficient support to retain high-quality teachers.

Teacher Recruitment and Retention in England; House of Commons Library 2019

Retaining and Developing the Teaching Workforce; National Audit Office 2017

Secondary Teacher Average Salary by Year

For more information on the latest school workforce data, see the following publication: School Workforce in England: November 2017;
Source: Department for Education
Publication date: 28 June 2018
Release Frequency: Annual

Number of Secondary Teachers (Full-Time Equivalent) by Year
Source: Department for Education, Table 1
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Single reference for all school workforce statistics based on staff working in publicly funded schools in England.

Before 2010, the number of teachers was taken as a snapshot in January. From 2010 onwards, the number of teachers was recorded in November.

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Secondary School Outputs

Secondary Pupil Numbers by Year

Following a reduction between 2011 and 2015, the number of secondary school pupils in England has begun to increase and is forecast to rise by 540,000 (19.4%) between 2017 and 2025. The increase in population of children of secondary school age is the likely cause behind the increase in pupils within state secondary schools.
Retaining and developing the teaching workforce

Secondary School Numbers by Year

Between 2004 and 2012, the number of secondary schools in England decreased by a total of 167 (5%). Since 2012, the number of secondary schools has been rising and in 2019 numbers reached 2004 levels.

Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio by Year

Between 2009 and 2018, there was a decline in the number of full-time equivalent secondary school teachers in England (see Secondary Inputs).

Due to the diversity of the curriculum and the number of subject-specialist teachers required, the pupil-to-teacher ratio is lower for secondary schools in England than for primary schools.

The increase in the pupil-to-teacher ratio since 2014 can be attributed to the increase in the number of secondary school pupils from the same year, as well as a fall in teacher numbers.

Pupil-to-adult ratio fell by 16% between 2005 and its lowest point in 2013. From this point onwards, this ratio has increased.

Secondary Pupil Number and Secondary School Numbers by Year
Source: Department for Education, Table 1a
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Data includes middle/all through schools.

Data includes city technology colleges and secondary academies, including free schools, university technical colleges and studio schools.

Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio and Pupil-to-Adult Ratio
Source: Department for Education, Table 17a
Publication Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

This release provides data from the annual school census data return, which is mandatory for schools to complete.

It provides a snapshot of the number of pupils in school in the January of that year—i.e. 2013 refers to the 2012/13 academic year with the census taken in January.

The data covers all schools in England, including academies from 2011 onwards.

Data was not collected in 2010 for pupil-to-adult ratio.

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Secondary School Outcomes

Ofsted Outcomes

According to the Ofsted outcomes of school inspections, 75% of secondary schools for state-funded schools in England are currently rated as ‘Good’ or ‘Outstanding’ on the overall effectiveness scale. Comparatively, these outcomes are achieved by 87% of primary schools.

English Baccalaureate Results

Since the introduction of the English Baccalaureate in 2010, the percentage of pupils in England that are achieving the measure (those that obtain grade C or above in a range of core subjects, or grade 5 or above from 2016/17) has increased significantly from 15.1% to a high of 24.7% in 2015/16.

The requirement for entering the English Baccalaureate includes the following subjects: English language and literature, mathematics, history or geography, a language, and two science GCSE’s.

It is not compulsory for schools to enter all pupils for the English Baccalaureate, although they are encouraged to do so. The range of subjects required means that relatively few pupils are entered (22% in 2009/10 up to a high of 36.8% in 2015/16).

A reduction in the English Baccalaureate pass rate was seen between 2015/16 and 2016/17. This could be attributable to the change to Level 5 or above grading, which is designed to be more difficult to achieve than the old grade C.

In 2017/18, the percentage of pupils achieving the English Baccalaureate was higher than the previous academic year.

Ofsted Outcomes
Results from most recent inspections of 3,311 secondary schools in England.
Source: Ofsted, Table T3
Publication Date: 13 June 2019
Release Frequency: Triannual

English Baccalaureate Results
Source: Department for Education, Table 1b(1)
Publication Date: 24 January 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

There have been several changes to the pass requirements for the English component of the English Baccalaureate that mean comparisons need to be treated with caution.

Before 2014/15, a grade C was required in both the English language and English literature option. After this date, a grade C in either was sufficient.

Achieving the English Baccalaureate requires pupils to obtain a grade C or above in a range of core subjects. From 2016/17, changes to the GCSE grading system required a Level 5 or above to be achieved in English and Mathematics.

A new grading system has been introduced from 2017 to replace the A* to G system with a new 9 to 1 scale for new reformed GCSEs.

Data includes state funded schools only (academies and local authority maintained).

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FE Spend

Spend Per Pupil

Recent spending reviews have led to changes in education spending, for which 16-18-year-old education was the only sector to experience reductions in resources.

In England, approximately £6 billion was spent on education for 16-18-year-olds in 2015/16, 62% of which was spent on further education and Sixth Form colleges. In the same year, per pupil spend for Further Education equated to £5.6 thousand, £500 higher than Sixth Form spend per pupil.

In 2011, the Education Maintenance Allowance was replaced with the 16-19 Bursary Scheme. The funding for this scheme equates to less than one-third of the £550 million spent on the Education Maintenance Allowance in 2010/11.

Spend per pupil was highest for Further Education in 2011/12 at £6,336. Since this period, there has been an 11% fall in Further Education spend per pupil and a fall of 17% in Sixth Form spend per pupil.

For more information, see: Long-run comparisons of spending per pupil across different stages of education.

Spend Per Pupil
Source: Institute for Fiscal Studies, Table B.1
Publication Date: February 2017

Further Education includes Sixth Form colleges.

School Sixth Form includes maintained schools and academies.

Figures are based on full-time equivalent numbers of students.

Figures are based on IFS estimates, not official statistics.

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FE Inputs

Workforce by Occupation

There are three occupational categories which comprise the largest proportion of staff working for Further Education providers in England. In 2017/18, teaching staff accounted for 31,013 employees (42% of all staff). Learner-facing technical staff (e.g. learning support staff) made up 11,782 (or 16%) of employees. Admin staff constituted 10,819 employees, which equated to 15% of staff working for Further Education providers.

Workforce by Employment Type

In 2017/18, permanent staff make up a large majority of the workforce in Further Education in England, accounting for 58,311 (or 76%) of those in employment. There are 3,501 staff on zero-hours contracts, comprising 5% of the workforce.

Workforce by Occupation and Workforce by Employment Type
Source: Education and Training Foundation, Figure 7 (Workforce by Occupation), Figure 12 (Workforce by Employment Type)
Publication Date: April 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Data obtained from the Education and Training Foundation; a government-backed, sector-owned workforce and professional development body for the Further Education (FE) and Training sector.

Data is taken from an analysis of workforce data from the Staff Individualised Record (SIR) dataset for Further Education providers in England in 2017-18.

This includes a sample of 90,792 individual contract records from 193 providers.

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FE Outputs

Participation Rates
a) Participation Rate In Full and Part-Time Education By Year

The participation rate in full- and part-time education by 16-, 17- and 18-year-olds in all three types of institutions has remained fairly constant over the last four years. There has been a decrease of 0.9 percentage points for general FE, tertiary and specialist colleges. There has been a 1.9 percentage points decrease for sixth form colleges.

Comparatively, the participation rate of 16-, 17- and 18-year-olds in state-funded schools increased by 1.9 percentage points.

b) Participation Rate In Full-Time Education and Not in Any Education, Employment or Training (NEET) By Academic Year

In 2013, school leaving age was raised to 18.

The participation rate of 16-, 17- and 18-year olds in full-time education has increased by 15 percentage points over the last 16 years.

The percentage of 16-, 17- and 18-year olds not in education, employment or training remained stable at 6.3% between 2015/16 and 2017/18, the lowest percentage since consistent records began.

Number of Apprenticeships

There were 814,800 apprenticeships recorded in 2017/18, which was 93,900 lower compared with 2016/17. This is the first decrease since 2013/14, where the number of apprenticeships was 851,500.

Participation Rates
Source: Department for Education
Release Date: 27 June 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

a) Participation Rate In Full and Part-Time Education By Year
Table 2a cont

Excludes all pupils in maintained and non-maintained special schools and pupil referral units.

Includes Universal Technical Colleges (UTCs) and Studio schools.

Excludes pupils in independent special schools.

Includes all pupils in independent schools and independent special schools.

Also includes some other further education delivered through commercial, charitable, and local authority providers.

Total of those studying part-time education as part of an apprenticeship, Employer Funded Training (EFT) and other education and training (OET).

b) Participation Rate In Full-Time Education and Not in Any Education, Employment or Training (NEET) By Academic Year
Table 3a

There is a discontinuity from 2002 onwards whereby participation in external institutions and specialist designated institutions are included in the figures. This increases overall participation rates in full-time education at each age by around 0.1 percentage point and participation rates in part-time education and overall education and training figures by around 0.4 percentage points.

Number of Apprenticeships
Source: Department for Education, Table 1
Publication Date: 28 March 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Figures for 2011/12 onwards are not comparable to earlier years as a Single Individualised Learner Record (ILR) data collection system was introduced. Technical changes have been made in the way learners participating on more than one Apprenticeship programme are counted. This has led to a removal of duplicate learners.

Figures for 2012/13 onwards include Apprenticeships through the Employer Ownership Pilot (EOP). New Apprenticeship standards undertaken in the EOP are included from 2015/16. There were no EOP starts since 2016/17.

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FE Outcomes

A-Level Results

In England, between 2013/14 and 2017/18, the percentage of entrants, aged 16-18, achieving A-Level grades of A* to Other have remained relatively level, with only small fluctuations between years.

The largest percentage of A-Level entrants achieved grades C and B, the percentage of which is very similar, with a 1 percentage point difference in 2017/18. Combined, these two grades constitute over half of all A-Levels for every year.

In 2017/18, 97.7% of entrants achieved passing grades A*-E. While this remains a similar level to previous years, it has fallen by 1.1 percentage points since its height in 2015/16.

Post-Study Destinations

There are three sustained destinations for students in England after further education. These are apprenticeships, employment and education. In 2016/17, sustained education constituted the destination for the majority of students at 61%. This category contained those entering into further education (level 3 and below), higher education (level 4 and above), and other education destinations.

Sustained employment was the second largest category, at 22% of students.

6% of students went into sustained apprenticeship programmes, of which half went into intermediate apprenticeships (level 2) and the remaining 3% went into advanced apprenticeships (level 3).

Apprenticeships

In England, those undertaking higher level apprenticeships have higher median earnings in each of the first four years after studying than those undertaking intermediate apprenticeships.

There has been an 18% increase in median pay after four years for advanced apprenticeships compared with 15% for intermediate.

DfE data has also been produced looking at the results from the Longitudinal Education Outcomes (LEO) study, to show the median earnings broken down by subject area; this showed warehousing and distribution, engineering, and manufacturing services to be the three subject areas that resulted in the highest median earnings following completion of the apprenticeship.

Comparisons with median earnings following higher education show that one year after graduation the median earnings are £17,000 compared with £17,200 for an advanced-level apprenticeship. However, the rate of increase in the median salary is quicker for higher education than advanced level apprenticeships (Graduate outcomes, by degree subject and university; Department for Education 2016).

A-Level Results
Source: Department for Education, Table 2c
Publication Date: 24 January 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Covers students aged 16, 17 or 18 at the start of the 2017/18 academic year, i.e. 31 August 2017.
‘Other’ includes ungraded, no award (absent/declined) and pending.

Covers all state-funded mainstream schools, academies, free schools, city technology colleges (CTCs), state-funded special schools and FE sector colleges.

Excludes PRUs, alternative provision, hospital schools, non-maintained special schools, other government department funded colleges, independent schools, independent special schools and independent schools approved to take pupils with special educational needs (SEN).

Post-Study Destinations
Source: Department for Education, Table NA1 Main
Publication Date: 16 October 2018
Release Frequency: Annual

2016/17 destinations for the 2015/16 cohort.

KS5 students at end of 16 to 18 study after entering A levels or other level 3 qualifications. Aged 17, 18 or 19 at start of destination year.

State-funded mainstream schools include local authority maintained schools, academies, free schools and city technology colleges.

State-funded colleges includes sixth-form colleges and other further education colleges.

Apprenticeships
Source: Department for Education, Headline Table
Publication date: 28 March 2019
Release Frequency: Annual

Average earnings post apprenticeship: 2010 to 2015
Source: Department for Education, Table 1a
Publication Date: 15 December 2016

Average earnings up to 4 years after training for adults that achieved apprenticeships between August 2010 and July 2013.

Experimental estimates that use Longitudinal Education Outcomes (LEO) data to show earnings after an apprenticeship across different subject areas and by institution.

The study covers learners with the following characteristics: achieved an apprenticeship between August 2010 and July 2013; were age 19 or older at the start of the academic year they achieved their apprenticeship; achieved an apprenticeship as their highest qualification in the academic year.

Overall achievement rate in UK in 2016/17 gives the mean of the achievement rates for all ages and levels.

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HE Spend

Expenditure

Over the last four years, higher education spending in England in all five categories has increased. Most notable are staff costs and other operating expenses, which have risen by 12% and 19% respectively.

In 2017/18, the total expenditure of higher education in England equated to £31.3 billion. Of this, approximately £16.8 billion (54% of the total expenditure) was spent of staff costs and £11.7 billion (37%) was spend on other operating expenses.

The least amount of money in 2017/18 was spent on fundamental restructuring costs, at only 0.3% of the total expenditure for that year.

Expenditure
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency
Publication Date: 2018

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HE Inputs

Workforce Bar Charts

In 2017/18, 54% of academic staff in the UK were men, compared with 46% that were female. In comparison, females made up the majority of non-academic staff in higher education institutions, at 63%, while males comprised 37% of the non-academic workforce.

Of males working in Higher Education, 77% work full-time. This compares to 60% of women; a gap of 17 percentage points. This gap is closer than that seen across the UK as a whole in all industries, where the gap is 28 percentage points (Labour Force Survey 2018, ONS).

Workforce By Year

There has been a steady increase in the numbers of full-time academic and non-academic staff in the UK between 2012/13 and 2017/18 (15% and 13% respectively). This aligns with increases in student numbers for first-degree by 12.1% (see outputs tab).

The number of part-time staff has also been steadily increasing, but at a lower rate (an 13% overall increase for academic, 5% for non-academic).

Workforce
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency, Figure 5 (Workforce Bar Charts), Figure 1 (Workforce Timeseries
Publication Date: 24 January 2019
Release frequency: Annual

This is the first release of data from the 2016/17 HESA Staff record. In previous years, the release has been titled “Staff at higher education providers in the United Kingdom”. It provides details of staff employment at UK Higher Education providers on 1st December 2016. It has been produced in partnership with the UK administrations and is released in accordance with the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

Data excludes atypical staff (generally those on short-term or ad-hoc contracts).

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HE Outputs

Entry Numbers

There has been a steady increase in first degree entry numbers, excluding a downward turn in 2012 following the increase in tuition fees in England. By 2017/18, student numbers for first degrees had risen 12% since 2008/09.

Over the same period, a 68% reduction has been seen in student numbers on other undergraduate courses (non-bachelor’s degrees).

Student Satisfaction

Student satisfaction levels have seen little change over the last six years and differences between the countries of the UK are relatively small. However, all four countries saw a fall in student satisfaction from 2016 to 2017.

Non-Continuation Rates

The non-continuation rate data shows differences between the countries within the UK; England and Wales have seen increases of 0.6 and 0.2 percentage points respectively between 2011/12 and 2016/17. In comparison, Scotland and Northern Ireland have experienced decreases of 0.8 and 0.1 percentage points respectively.

Possible explanations for the increase in non-continuation rates in England include the impact of increased tuition fees.

Entry Numbers
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency
Publication Date: January 2019
Release frequency: Annual

Student data is primarily taken from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) student record, which universities, colleges and other higher education providers return to HESA on an annual basis.

Other undergraduate courses include a variety of qualifications that do not lead to a Bachelor’s degree, such as a Higher National Diploma (HND).

Student Satisfaction
Source: National Student Survey
Publication Date: 5 July 2019
Release frequency: Annual

Information from 2012-2018 National Student Surveys.

Non-Continuation Rates
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency, Table D
Publication Date: 7 March 2019
Release frequency: Annual

Represents the percentage of full-time entrants who do not continue in higher education beyond the first year.

Shows first-degree entrant information only.

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HE Outcomes

UK First Degree Student Destinations in 2016/17, Six Months After Leaving

Six months after leaving university, 56% of all students in the UK with first degrees enter into full-time employment.

After leaving university, more women than men are in full-time work (78,535 and 54,775 respectively). This aligns with higher entry numbers for females to university over the last five years; female entries have been around 30% higher than males over this period, with the gap widening.

The proportion of women in full-time employment after six months is also higher, at 57% compared with 55% for men.

A subject with far higher numbers of women entering university who then go onto gain full-time employment comes from subjects allied to medicine (such as nursing).
Who’s studying in HE?; HESA
Graduate outcomes (LEO): outcomes in 2016 to 2017; Department for Education, Table 5

Generally, females achieved better results at A-level than males, which will also have an impact on university places.
A level and other 16 to 18 results: 2016 to 2017 (revised); Department for Education

Median Earnings 1-10 Years after Graduation

According to 2016/17 PAYE data, the median earnings of UK domiciled first degree graduates from English Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), Further Education Colleges (FECs)f and Alternative Providers (Aps) (see notes for definitions) for males up to ten years after graduation is higher than the median earnings for females.

Median earnings for males increase by £14,400 ten years after graduation while, in comparison, the median earnings for females increase by £7,600.

Initial median earnings are similar to those with advanced-level apprenticeships, but earnings for Higher Education graduates increase at a higher rate.

Median Earnings by Ethnicity 3 Years After Graduation

According to 2016/17 PAYE data, the three ethnic groups of UK domiciled first degree graduates from English HEIs, FECs and APs with the highest median earnings three years after graduation are “Asian or Asian British – Indian”, “Chinese”, and “Other Asian background.

Ethnic groups that have the lowest median earnings three years after graduation include “Asian or Asian British – Pakistani” and “Other Black background”.

UK First Degree Student Destinations in 2016/17, Six Months After Leaving
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency, Table C
Publication Date: 19 July 2018
Release Frequency: Annual

From Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA): Data is collected through a survey carried out approximately six months after students leave. Data is also linked to the student record. This allows analysis of destinations by students’ attributes such as sex, subject of study and qualification obtained.

“Unemployed” includes those who replied to the survey, indicating they were ‘due to start work’ but not indicating that they were also working and/or in further study.

Median Earnings 1-10 Years after Graduation and Median Earnings by Ethnicity 3 Years After Graduation
Source: Department for Education, Table 3 (Median Earnings by Sex), Table 4 (Median Earnings by Ethnicity
Publication Date: 28 March 2019
Release frequency: Annual

The data covers UK domiciled first degree graduates from English HE institutions (HEIs), Further Education Colleges (FECs) and Alternative Providers (APs).

Gives Pay as You Earn (PAYE) data in tax year 2015/16 for graduates of the following cohorts: 2005/06, 2010/11, 2012/13, 2014/15. This represents cohorts one, three, five and ten years after graduation.

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